Anthropogenic noise is widespread in nature and has been shown to produce a plethora of impacts on wildlife. Sounds play a fundamental role in the lives of amphibians, with species relying on acoustic communication for social and reproductive behaviour, and thus noise can potentially interfere with these activities. Here, we provide a literature review on the effects of anthropogenic noise on anuran amphibians, based on 32 studies (63 species from 14 families) that document noise-driven changes in species behaviour, physiology and ecology caused by urbanisation, transportation and energy production. Experimental and observational studies found evidence that both airborne and seismic anthropogenic noise influence anuran calling activity, with consequences in mate selection, and induce physiological changes including increased stress, suppressed immune function and colouration changes. Negative noise effects in species abundance and attendance over the reproductive season were reported. Even though adaptations and behavioural adjustments enable species to respond to these noises, it is yet to be understood whether these changes alleviate the negative impacts. Furthermore, collaborative efforts between scientists, stakeholders and private/public institutions are imperative to create conservation guidelines and legal instruments to be implemented during urban expansion projects and mitigate the effects of noise pollution on amphibian anurans.
Acoustic communication, behaviour, conservation, noise pollution, physiology